Terpinen-4-ol enantiomeric %
ATTIA is also keenly following the progress of researchers at the University of Western Australia (UWA) who are investigating the anti-cancer potential of pure Australian TTO. A few years ago topical application of a very specific formulation containing pure Australian TTO as the active ingredient was shown to significantly reduce the viability of melanoma and mesothelioma cancer cells in vitro and since then studies of skin cancers in mice have confirmed its ability to reduce or resolve some types of skin cancers. Researchers believe this may be due to the stimulatory effect TTO has on the body’s own immune system. Much work remains to be done before this reaches proof-of-concept stage.
Researchers at UWA are also investigating the clinical activity of formulated products containing TTO for activity against acne-causing bacteria. This will eventually result in a pilot study using volunteers to measure the activity of the most promising formulations in a human population.
For the grower members of ATTIA there is continuing support for research into high yielding genotypes of M alternifolia through both a conventional breeding program and using cutting-edge technology to identify specific gene markers for high yield and disease resistance that occur in natural populations. These markers can be used to quickly and efficiently identify individuals with outstanding properties from existing wild populations for infusion into the ongoing conventional breeding program to increase genetic diversity and ensure sustainability. In an emerging area ATTIA and the Australian Government have recently commenced a joint study to investigate the use of biochar generated from spent leaf and inter-crop legume planting to reduce both carbon and nitrous oxide emissions. Increasing productivity and developing a low emission industry not only ensures survival of an industry that utilizes a native crop plant in a sustainable way but also improves the green credentials of an already clean and green industry.
Tea tree oil safety issues that have been raised in the past include skin sensitization, endocrine disruption and bacterial resistance. What is your take on these?
I want to address these separately as all three are critically important questions and need different answers.
Allergic reactions and skin sensitization
TTO that has been well stored since distillation is a safe, natural product and its efficacy and safety is well known and documented. There is absolutely no doubt that some people are allergic to pure Australian TTO in the same way that some people are allergic to peanuts, milk or wheat. This can manifest itself in many forms from reddening, irritation and itching of the skin through to blisters and burns. Whenever and wherever TTO is used for the first time a user should make sure that it is diluted in a carrier oil (eg jojoba) to 10% before trying a small drop on the soft skin of the inside of the forearm. Wait 24 hours, unless immediate signs of itching or swelling are noticed. If a reaction occurs, immediately wash the area with soap and water and discontinue use. It is worth mentioning that slight, transient irritation is sometimes seen in clinical trials, this may be considered acceptable, depending on the benefits. However, allergic reactions are never acceptable.
Immediate, strong allergic reactions to TTO are uncommon and have been estimated to occur in less than 0.5% of the population. Sensitization to TTO has also been well documented; this occurs where repeated exposure to a product increases the reaction to its application. This can happen with pure TTO, but it is more likely to occur where TTO has either been poorly stored, which increases the level of peroxides and other irritants through oxidation, or when the oil has been adulterated.
This is a myth and is the one that get me the most upset. I often see reference in scientific articles, blogs and online comments that refer to a link between gynecomastia (man boobs) and lavender and tea tree oils and I have been battling the negative publicity that erupted when the original work by Henley et al http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17267908 was first published in the NEJM in 2007. The authors linked the use of personal care products containing lavender and/or tea tree oil to breast development in 3 prepubertal boys and then went on to “demonstrate” that the endocrine disruption was caused by the two essential oils using well trays in the laboratory. These 96 well trays, made of plastic, contain phthalates which are known endocrine disruptors and I know from personal experience that TTO is an excellent solvent and extracts phthalates from any unprotected plastic it comes in contact with very quickly and efficiently. I believe this is why Henley et al reported the estrogenic and anti-androgenic “activity” of TTO and lavender possibly without even realizing the truth. More here.
If you look at this another way, at least 400,000 kg of pure Australian TTO is shipped annually and used by thousands of people in hundreds (or even thousands) of products as well as being applied as an undiluted oil for medical, cosmetic and aromatherapy uses every day. If TTO did indeed have any kind of estrogenic or other endocrine disruptive activity then surely gynecomastia or at least some other symptoms would have been seen in more than the three boys Henley et al looked at.
The suggestion that exposure to sub-lethal levels of TTO induced resistance in bacteria was first reported in 2007 and again in 2008 by McMahon et al. In 2008, and again in subsequent years, researchers at the UWA TTO research group tried to replicate the work done by McMahon et al to no avail. Repeated attempts by scientists at the University of Western Australia (Hammer et al 2008, Hammer et al 2012, Thomsen et al 2013) failed to induce resistance to any antibiotics in any of the bacteria studied and led them to conclude in 2013 that “…there is no evidence to suggest that tea tree oil induces resistance to antimicrobial agents.” Unlike most antibiotics, which are usually single molecules, TTO contains more than 113 naturally-occurring molecules. The synergistic effect of these compounds makes it improbable that bacteria could develop resistance to TTO.
Do you feel that current legislation impacting tea tree oil is reasonable, and do you anticipate more restrictive legislation?
We live in a world where regulation plays a major part in the registration and use of any cosmetic or medicinal ingredient whether natural or synthetic in origin. Regulations are there to protect users from harm. Some products and chemicals are very harmful if used incorrectly or indiscriminately so we all have to accept that regulation is a fact of life; ATTIA’s approach is and always will be cooperative. Having said that it is worth pointing out that legislation varies far too much around the world and I would prefer a more uniform approach to this in the same way that many countries are now adopting and moving towards the UN’s Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS). This makes legislation far easier to manage.
Restrictive legislation is frustrating to any essential oil industry simply because most of it is designed to work with a single molecule which is clear-cut, easy to identify and assay, and is usually also patentable. An essential oil is a variable complex of molecules that, like the human genome, belongs to all of us and at the same time to none of us – in other words a regulator’s nightmare! However there is also no doubt that these oils are efficacious, safe and widely used around the world in cosmetic and medicinal formulations so I believe that regulators need to look closely at these naturally occurring substances and create separate legislation for them. This is beginning to occur in some places, but while these are being developed essential oil industries are being forced to address two separate sets of legislation, which can be burdensome.
What are the principal challenges facing the tea tree oil industry?
In the short to medium term adulteration of a pure, natural product with byproducts and other waste from chemical factories is the foremost challenge facing our industry today. This practice is motivated purely by profit and relies totally on the safety, efficacy and reputation of pure Australian TTO while undercutting the market price often to the point where a farmer cannot safely and sustainably produce the original product. The result of this cheating is to devalue TTO as a viable product. Unless it is combated vigorously, this could lead to adulterated or wholly synthetic concoctions becoming the norm for customers buying or trading ‘tea tree oil’ resulting in a devalued and virtually useless substitute for the real thing. ATTIA is currently cooperating with scientists and regulators from around the world to develop a cheap, effective test that will allow a discerning manufacturer to detect some of the more common forms of adulteration. Once this has been adopted by internationally accepted Standards organizations such as ISO and BP it will make it harder and far more expensive for those who adulterate pure TTO to continue to dupe manufacturers and end-users for their own gain.